Organicism is based on the conviction that art should imitate nature The metaphorical application to architecture of concepts originally reserved for living nature, is one of the most widespread and constant themes in the history of Western architecture and its theory, but also one of the most variable and elusive. In discussing the range of intercolumniation, or how high temples should be raised from the ground, Alberti simply reinvigorated the Vitruvian tradition when he used proportional measurements, based on the analogy with the body. According to Van Eck's account, "both the use of modular proportions in architecture and the advocacy of organic unity in designs are only the expressions of an underlying and more fundamental notion, that of purposive unity.
In the modern world science and religion sometimes square off in debates filled with claims that only one world really exists. The religious advocates may claim that mankind is not an animal, while the scientists say that mankind is only an animal.
But most people appear to recognize the existence of both worlds, and a duality of human nature seems to be embedded in our language itself. For example, our word animal derives from the Latin word animameaning "spirit" or "ghost.
What the animal does, while alive, is animated. Of course, the universe is one place, not two, but those with minds and senses experience it in two different ways. Our two-world systems, in Homer and so much other literature, reflect the apparent division between outer and inner worlds in ordinary human experience: The macrocosm is the external and transitory place of things, time present, change, the body and experience of its senses, physical nature, other living people and creatures; the microcosm is the internal and imagined world of hopes and fears, past and future time, ideals, dreams, superstitions, fantasy and the transcendent, unnatural and supernatural.
Normal human consciousness vacillates constantly between these two dissimilar places. We are drawn "out" of ourselves to consider the external world, and then we retreat "into" ourselves again. Yet human awareness is designed to process only one world actively at a time. It's impossible for us consciously to be in both places simultaneously without negligence, confusion, failure of concentration, or similar defect of consciousness.
The focus of literature similarly is extroverted or introverted, macro or micro in its subject matter. Literary analysis often classifies particular works of literature as either Illiadic or Odyssean.
Novels, for example, are said to be either social or psychological; the prototype novel heroes using the term "heroes" now in the modern sense: Poems are similarly described either as mirrors reflecting the external world or as lamps illuminating interior space.
Poets are classified as either natural object-oriented, interested in externals or transcendental subject-oriented or self-absorbed. A comparable division is found in philosophy, where not all of the worthies are by any means of the sage type.
Philosophers are classified as either Platonists or Aristotelians. The group that follows Plato and the Odyssean way is concerned primarily with an inner realm of thoughts, ideals, words, spirits and abstract things apprehended by mind but not present to the physical senses.
The rival camp, following Aristotle and the Iliadic direction, is interested mainly in external reality, bodies, the natural and physical environment, society, and laws or patterns recognizable in observable, objective facts. Even when Plato and Aristotle walk side by side, as in Raphael's famous painting The School of Athens detail shown leftthey do not see eye to eye or point in the same direction.
We can't hear what the two are saying in Raphael's scene, but it seems clear enough that they belong to different generations and aren't listening too carefully to one another.The idea is far from original with Plato; within Greek culture alone there are Homer and Hesiod, who begin their great works asking a Muse to “speak into” them.
In this case, by contrast with that of imitation, Plato finds a new use for an idea that has a cultural and religious meaning before him (Ledbetter , Murray , Tigerstedt ). Organicism is based on the conviction that art should imitate nature The idea of organic unity implies basic concepts of the One and the Many, Plato's idea of the whole plays an increasingly important role.
He advances the notion that "the whole made up of the parts is a single notion. This work employs plato’s concept of justice as a critique to Nigerian present society and politics. Therefore, the state exists for man and not man for the state, since man creates the state.
In this regard, it is the function of the state to provide for man’s needs. and this agrees with Plato’s idea of harmony between the three.
According to Plato, the purpose of education is to free the spirit and turn it towards the truth. One cannot research Plato's education without reading the Allegory of the Cave, which illustrates how an individual acquires knowledge. The Concept of Imitation in Plato Plato takes the term ‘mimesis’ with several meanings and connotations in the dialogues and alters the meaning of the term according to the context in which he uses it.
poetry must be likewise subject to control7. Sep 04, · This idea reaches is apogee in Benedetto Croce, who very nearly denies that nature can ever be beautiful, or at any rate asserts that the beauty of nature is a reflection of the beauty of art. “The real meaning of ‘natural beauty’ is that certain persons, things, places are, by the effect which they exert upon one, comparable with poetry.